Tipu Sultan (1782-1799)
After Haider’s death, Tipu Sultan continued the Second British War till 1784.
He fought the Third Anglo-Mysore War (1790-92) and the Fourth British War (1799).
Third British Mysore War (1790-1792) Reasons
1) Tipu Sultan had strengthened his position by making various internal reforms.
The nature of British imperialism was such that they used every pact of peace to find time for further attacks.
2) Tipu Sultan sent delegations to the Turkish state in 1784 and 1785 and to the French state in 1787 to help against the British.
3) Tipu Sultan attacked Travancore in April 1790 due to differences with the state of Travancore.
The British, ready for war, sided with Travancore.
4) Taking advantage of the anti-Tipu sentiments in the minds of the Nizam and the Marathas.
Lord Cornwallis formed the Anglo-Nizam-Maratha Tripartite Alliance in 1790.
Important Events –
* In 1790, Tipu Sultan defeated Major General Meadow.
So Lord Cornwallis himself took command and reached Srirangapatnam via Vellore, Amber, Bangalore.
* After initial setbacks, Cornwallis, with the help of the Nizam and the Marathas, laid siege to Srirangapatna in February 1792.
Tipu Sultan put up strong resistance, but the failure to continue the British war came to his notice.
Therefore, in March 1792 the ‘Treaty of Srirangapatna’ was signed.
Treaty of Srirangapatna (March 1792) was signed between Tipu Sultan and the British, Nizam and Peshwa.
Its provisions were as follows:
1) The previous treaty between Mysore and the British was maintained.
2) Tipu should relinquish half of his territory.
This region will be divided into Anglo-Nizam-Maratha.
The area southwest of the Cauvery River will remain in Tipu’s possession only.
3) Tipu Sultan will pay compensation of Rs. 3.6 crore, out of which Rs. 1.6 crore will have to be paid immediately, while the remaining amount will have to be paid in three weeks.
4) Tipu Sultan should release all prisoners of war.
5) Until all these conditions are met, Tipu’s two children will remain hostage to the British.
6) Due to this taha the Nizam got the most territory.
The Maratha frontier extended to Krishna-Tungabhadra.
The British got the territory from Kannanor to Ponnai river on the Malabar coast as well as Dindigul Baramahal district.
But the state of Travancore for which this war was fought did not get any territory.
Cornwallis described the war as follows: “We have effectively weakened our enemy, but not our allies.
The Fourth British War and Mysore War (1799) – Reasons:
1) Tipu’s strong desire to avenge his humiliating defeat and the conditions imposed on him. The desire to re-establish itself.
2) Tipu’s efforts to get help from France as well as the Muslim governments of Arabia, Kabul and Turkey.
He also sent delegations from these countries. A small French detachment reached Mangalore in April 1798.
3) Lord Wellesley’s arrival in 1798: he had a hard and imperialist ideology. Napoleon’s spree to his country in the standing attack scarecrow.
Were struggling to wipe out powerful enemies like Tipu.
* The British operations against Tipu Sultan started in March 1799.
First at malavalli and then at sedasira. Tipu Sultan was influenced
* Tipu retreated to Srirangapatna on May 4, 1799 while defending Srirangapatna. He died.
Lord Wellesley’s brother Arthur Wellesley also took part in the war. (Arthur Wellesley also fought in the Second Anglo-Maratha War.
He later defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo.)
Most of Mysore was annexed by the British and a small area was inherited by the wadiyar dynasty (Krishnaraja III, a 5 year old Was) returned.
The new state accepted the treaty of the deployment of British troops.
(Later, in 1831, Lord William Bentinck took over the administration of Mysore due to mismanagement of the state. However, in 1881, Lord Ripon again handed over the state of Mysore to his king.)
Tipu’s economic reforms:
Tipu Sultam was the only Indian ruler whose economic power was military Was convinced.
Its economic reforms include the following.
Establishment of modern industries with the help of foreign experts, government assistance to industries, sending of ambassadors to France, Turkey, Iran and Pegu to promote foreign trade,
Introduction of new coinage, new weights and measures, new calendars etc.
Tipu Sultan reform:
revenuean attempt to increase the income of the state by abolishing the jagir system, reducing the traditional lands of the polygamous feudal lords, trying to improve the condition of the farmers by reducing unfair taxes, etc.
Tipu’s military reforms:
1) He designed his infantry in the European style and tried to build a modern navy with the help of the French. He built two dockyards.
2) Tipu was aware of the events of the French Revolution. He planted the ‘Tree of Liberty’ at Srirangapatna.
He also became a member of the Jacobian Club in France.
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